Up to 30-40% of the patients may develop bladder recurrance after radical nephroureterectomy
for primary upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Bladder tumor needs transurethral resection,
which is associated with costs of treatment and potential poor prognosis. Although several
randomized controlled trial have shown that prophylactic intravesical chemotherapy could
prevent bladder tumor recurrence, the optimal schedule and duration of treatment are unkown.
The investigators want to determine the efficiacy of single instillation versus long-term
intravesical instillation of pirarubicin for bladder recurrence after radical
nephrouretectomy for primary upper tract urothelial carcinoma.