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Administration of Clomiphene: Short and Long Term Metabolism in an Anti-Doping Setting (NCT03028532)

Sports Medicine Research and Testing Laboratory
Partnership for Clean Competition
Clomiphene (Clomid) is a drug FDA approved to treat female infertility, however, it is often used by men in an off-label setting to both treat male infertility and in a multitude of sports disciplines to increase performance. Study Objectives: - Determine detection windows for clomiphene and its metabolites in urine following a medium-term administration - Understand the effect of clomiphene administration on luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and serum testosterone (T) concentrations in a longitudinal manner - Identify changes in current steroidal module of Athlete Biological Passport
  • Drug: Clomid
    Participants will self-administer Clomid (50mg oral tablet) once daily for 30 consecutive days
    • Clomiphene
    • Clomifene
Ages eligible for Study
18 Years to 40 Years
Genders eligible for Study
Accepts Healthy Volunteers
Accepts Healthy Volunteers
Inclusion Criteria:
  • Active males who engage in regular exercise between the ages of 18 and 40 on the day of enrollment • For this study, regular exercise is defined as: physical activity resulting in an increased heart rate for at least 30 minutes per day, 4-5 days per week.
Exclusion Criteria:
  • Individuals outside of the described age range on the day of enrollment
  • Individuals who are in a Registered Testing Pool for anti-doping purposes, or individuals who for any reason could be subject to doping control testing
  • Individuals who are unwilling or unable to provide blood or urine samples
  • Individuals who do not actively exercise
  • Individuals with any history of cancer, cardiovascular disease, endocrine abnormalities, infertility, hypoandrogenism, renal disease, hepatic disease, neurologic disease, or any psychiatric history
  • Individuals who have previously used anabolic steroids, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), or who are currently using any substances included on the WADA Prohibited List
  • History of venous thromboembolic disease (i.e. deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism)
  • History of untreated cataracts
  • History of intracranial lesions such as pituitary tumors
  • Transaminase elevation greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • Moderate or heavy alcohol intake
Clomiphene, pharmaceutically prepared as clomiphene citrate, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with a therapeutic indication to treat female infertility. Though FDA-approved only for use in women, clomiphene is often prescribed off-label to males to treat male infertility and secondary hypogonadism due to its ability to increase serum testosterone levels. Numerous clinical studies have documented both the effectiveness for these indications and safety of clomiphene administration in males. Increasing the concentration of circulating testosterone can have additional effects, including the enhancement of performance in sports. As such, clomiphene is already abused by athletes in several sporting disciplines, including mixed martial arts, cycling, and bodybuilding. Therefore, clomiphene is a prohibited substance under the World Anti-Doping Agency code . Though the parent compound and metabolites of clomiphene are directly detectable in routine anti-doping screening, the urinary detection window and the effect of clomiphene administration on other anti-doping markers are unknown and thus the foci of this study.

1 locations

United States (1)
  • University of Utah Orthopaedic Center
    Not specified
    Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84108
active not recruiting
12 March, 2017
24 October, 2017
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