In this "before and after" study we will investigate the potential benefit on postoperative
outcomes of a guided fluid therapy with a stroke volume optimization . The NICE protocol has
been applied by means of EV1000 monitor and arterial waveform analysis ( Flotrac - Edwards).
In the postoperative period overall complications, as well as exitus , will be analyzed and
compared with those of a control group underwent the same surgical interventions, with a
standard hemodynamic monitoring.