The treatment of postoperative pain continues to be a challenge after posterior spinal
fusions. There is considerable evidence demonstrating that a multi-modality approach
including patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with opioids for postoperative pain management
compared to conventional opioid analgesia provides a greater analgesic effect even when the
amount of opioids consumed is similar between both groups. However, the PCA modality is often
discontinued prior to all the patients' pain needs being met. The IONSYS system uses the
concept of PCA-delivered narcotics and may be used for postoperative pain management.