Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) experience distressing activity-related
respiratory discomfort which is challenging to manage therapeutically. Interventions such as
pulmonary rehabilitation, collaborative self-management, supplemental oxygen therapy and oral
opiate medications, are variably effective and therapeutic responses to each in individual
patients are difficult to predict. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acute effects
of inhaled opiate therapy (fentanyl citrate) on breathing discomfort (dyspnea) in individuals
with mild-to-moderate ILD, as well as examine the potential mechanisms of dyspnea relief.