Background: Malnutrition is widespread among cardiac surgery patients and is independently
related to an adverse postoperative evolution or outcome. The investigators aimed to assess
whether nutrition therapy (NT) could alter caloric deficit, morbidity, and mortality in
patients scheduled for non-emergency coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or aortic valve
Methods: 351 patients undergoing either elective CABG or aortic valve surgery were studied.
Patients receiving NT were enrolled from January 2013 until December 2014. A historical
control group consisted of 142 matched patients. Preoperative nutritional status was
evaluated. Resting energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry or calculated.
Caloric intake and caloric deficits were assessed. The primary endpoint was to evaluate
whether NT could limit caloric deficit (Intake to Need Deviation). A secondary endpoint
addressed the potential effect of NT on morbidity and mortality. Patients were followed for
one year after surgery.