There is no international consensus on evaluation and surgical treatment of Lumbar Spinal
Stenosis (LSS). The indication for operative treatment is relative, and the variation in
surgical rates and procedures is significant, both within and between countries.
Understanding practice-based variety is critical since these differences may reflect a
disparity in quality of the health care in different institutions, regions, or countries.
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark do all have National spine registers for research and quality
assessment. Comparing indications for surgery, selected procedure, patient reported outcomes,
and factors predicting outcome after surgery for LSS between these countries could provide
information about optimal indications and strategy for surgery. Register-based studies have
advantages such as large sample sizes and high external validity, but also limitations such
as lower follow-up rates, and inferior data quality compared to clinical trials.
Hypotheses: Between these three countries, there are no differences in (i) indications for
surgery, (ii) patient-reported outcome after surgery or (iii) risk factors associated to
outcome are similar.