The objective of this retrospective observational study is to compare commonly prescribed
bipolar disorder medications for their impact on: (1) all-cause mortality; (2)
hospitalization; (3) mood episodes; (4) suicide attempts and self-harm; and (5) risk of
drug-induced adverse effects such as kidney disease/failure and metabolic syndrome. In
addition, the investigators will examine heterogeneity of treatment effect by co-morbidity
within pediatric, adult, and elderly sub-populations. Patient focus groups are convened to
elicit additional questions and provide feedback on results.