Traditionally, laparoscopy has been based on 2-dimensional (2D) imaging, which has
represented a considerable challenge for those approaching this technique. Thus,
3-dimensional (3D) visualization technology for laparoscopy has been proposed, since the
early 1990s, as a way to facilitate laparoscopic performance. However, early 3D laparoscopic
technology was limited in terms of image quality, so that its use had not been implemented.
More recently, industry has developed novel 3D systems where the imaging is similar to
stereoscopic vision, in which the depth perception is achieved by different unique images
received by each eye. Thus, more recent studies have suggested a possible advantage provided
by these new 3D systems during laparoscopic performance. However, comparative assessments of
new generation 3D vs 2D laparoscopy remain limited, especially in the hepatobiliary and
To assess the benefits and harms of use of three dimensional systems versus two dimensional
systems during laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.