The primary objectives of the study are as follows: To develop and optimize a renal
functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol consisting of Diffusion-Weighted
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI), Blood-Oxygen- Level-Dependent MRI (BOLD-MRI), Arterial
Spin Labeling MRI (ASL-MRI), Phase Contrast MRI (PC-MRI), and T1rho-MRI; To compare renal
functional MRI cross-sectional readouts between normal healthy volunteers (NHV) and lupus
nephritis (LN) participants.
The secondary objectives of this study are as follows: Explore whether renal functional MRI
techniques discriminate between renal inflammatory activity and damage in lupus nephritis
(LN); To examine whether renal functional MRI measurements correlate with laboratory features
of renal involvement and renal function in participants with lupus nephritis (LN).