The primary objective of this prospective pilot study is to examine the variation of
cognitive function at various time-points in stage I-III breast cancer patients who have
undergone or are undergoing adjuvant systemic therapy (chemotherapy and/or anti-hormonal
therapy) and compare this to a group of healthy controls to evaluate if there is a
difference. All randomized patients and their respective controls would be required to
complete the computerized neuropsychological assessment CANTAB at certain time-points.These
patients and controls would also be given on the same day as CANTAB testing, a set of
questionnaires to evaluate subjective factors such as anxiety, depression, fatigue or
menopausal symptoms which may also have an effect on cognition. Subjective assessment of
cognitive function will rely on self-reporting by study participants using a validated
questionnaire.The potential risks to subjects are minimal, as this is a study without any
intervention regarding the medical management of patients. By participating in this study,
subjects will be helping in the aim of determining if there is cognitive impairment
post-therapy, and if so, how prevalent is this phenomenon, when it arises and how it changes
with time. This will consequentially play an important role with regard to patient knowledge.
Furthermore, if chemotherapy is shown to be associated with cognitive impairment, further
studies can be carried out to determine the exact pathophysiology behind this phenomenon.
This will allow for sensitive and timely detection of cognitive dysfunction in patients who
have received chemotherapy and/or anti-hormonal therapy, and subsequently open the avenue for
research in preventing or alleviating this phenomenon. This is crucial in improving patients'
quality of life, social and occupational performance.
The investigators hypothesis is that systemic adjuvant therapy in the form of chemotherapy
and/or anti-hormonal therapy given to primary breast cancer patients can cause cognitive