This study is designed to test how breakfast affects brain function, memory and learning in
Hypotheses: Based on the results of our initial study and the relevant literature, it is
hypothesized that arousal, attention, and performance will be:
1. Greater in those who eat breakfast relative to those who do not;
2. Greater in lean than in overweight children receiving the higher protein breakfast;
3. Greater in fasting lean than fasting overweight children; and
4. Improved following a morning snack in all study groups.
5. Poorer in children with higher stress-related measures (e.g., higher cortisol levels).
6. Heart rate will be lower in fasting relative to fed participants, and across groups will
be higher in overweight children.