Clinical studies are proposed to analyze the interactions between nicotine, alterations in
endocrine hormones, mood and cardiovascular measures. The studies are designed to examine the
contribution of gender and menstrual cycle phase. It is hypothesized that analysis of
nicotine's rapid hormonal, cardiovascular and subjective effects will be important for
developing novel biologic approaches to treatment for nicotine abuse and dependence as well
as advancing understanding of the neurobiology of nicotine reinforcement.