This observational Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) diagnostics evaluation study is a
longitudinal study of pulmonary TB suspects who are undergoing sputum evaluation for
pulmonary TB. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF (Mycobacterium
tuberculosis/rifampin) assay performed on the first sputum collected for Xpert testing will
be compared to gold standard conventional culture methods on two sputum specimens, in
HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants.