Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) become
the therapy of choice for renal stone. Although providing good results, stone recurrence is
usually found as the therapies do not change the underlying metabolic abnormality. Among the
metabolic disorders, hypocitraturia is an important risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis.
This study evaluate the preventive effects of potassium sodium citrate on stone recurrence as
well as stone growth post ESWL or PCNL, in patients with calcium-containing stones.