Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) refers to an obstruction in the trunk of the portal vein. It can
extend downstream to the portal branches, or upstream to the splenic and/or the mesenteric
veins. The prevalence of PVT is 10-25% and incidence is about 16% in cirrhotic patients.
Recent studies demonstrate that the presence of PVT is not only an independent predictor of
failure to control active variceal bleeding and prevent variceal rebleeding, but also
significantly associated with increased mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis.
However, in recent American Association of the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD) practice
guidelines and Baveno V consensus, no treatment strategies in cirrhotic patients with PVT was
clearly recommended due to the absence of randomized controlled trials.