This study will primarily compare the effectiveness of surgery and radiation for localized
prostate cancer, the most common male cancer. It will focus on modern technologies and
control for differences in patients and treatments that may affect both cancer-related and
patient-reported outcomes (such as impotence and incontinence). By figuring out what
treatments "work best, in which patients and in whose hands", it will help men with prostate
cancer make better decisions regarding their care.