Sedentary lifestyles and increasing obesity are main causes of the global increase in the
prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (Mets) and type 2 diabetic (T2DM). Diet quality,
particularly composition of carbohydrate play also a significant role. The glycemic index
(GI) describes in relative terms rise of blood glucose after ingestion of carbohydrate-rich
food. Purified dietary fibre as β-glucan (BG) has been shown to reduce GI and affect levels
of satiety hormones. In contrast, our knowledge of the physiological effects of arabinoxylans
(AX), which constitute a substantial part of dietary fibre in cereal products, is limited.
The investigators also lack a deeper understanding of the importance of whole grain (whole
grain with whole kernels, and purified dietary fibre) in relation to Mets and T2DM.
Hypothesis: The composition of dietary carbohydrates can be designed so that they improve the
glycemic and insulinaemic responses and increase satiety feeling. This can be detected in
metabolic parameters in subjects with Mets.
The aim of our study is in subjects with Mets to compare the effect of acute consumption of
bread rich in (a) purified AX, (b) purified BG, (c) rye bread with whole kernels (RK), with a
(d) control group with consumption of white bread (WB).
The primary endpoint is GI. Secondary endpoints are the following items: glycemic load,
insulin index, glucose, insulin, glucagon, inflammatory markers, incretins, rate of gastric
emptying, and metabolomics. Also satiety feeling will be measured.
This project will improve opportunities for identifying and designing foods with low GI that
is particularly suited to people who are at high risk of developing T2DM. The investigators
also expect to gain a greater understanding of the metabolic fingerprint, as seen after
ingestion of low-GI foods and thereby gain a molecular understanding of how low-GI foods
affect health by altering metabolic processes. This will give us a deeper insight into the
metabolic processes that are necessary for maintaining normal glucose homeostasis.