Antimalarial drug resistance is increasing nearly everywhere in the tropical world,
confounding global attempts to "Roll Back Malaria." South East Asia has the most resistant
malaria parasites in the world. This has limited the options for treatment in this region.
Artemisinin-based combination therapy is now the recommended treatment for uncomplicated
falciparum malaria. The success of this policy change in practice will depend on the efficacy
of the components of the combination used, the population coverage achieved, high levels of
adherence to treatment, low cost of the drugs, and preferably the drugs in a combination
treatment should be formulated in a single tablet, to prevent one drug being taken without
the partner drug. Until recently there were only two artemisinin-based fixed combinations
available, artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine; and only the former
has international registration. More fixed combinations are needed urgently.