This study will examine the effectiveness of intranasal (IN) ketamine compared to standard
intravenous (IV) ketamine administration for simple reductions of orthopaedic injuries in the
paediatric population. The aim is to assess if IN administration is equivalent to the current
standard of care, IV. The population to be studied is children 5-17 years of age who require
a simple orthopaedic reduction. Following a double dummy approach to overcome the difficulty
in masking interventions, each participant will recieve both IV and IN interventions, only
one of which will be the real drug. Procedural conscious sedation (PCS) will be assessed
using the University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS).