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Comparison of Upper Airway Patency Using Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation Via a Nasal Mask With a Face Mask During Induction of Anesthesia on Obese Patients (NCT03024723)

The mechanism of Upper airway obstruction (UAO) during anesthesia shares many similarities with the upper airway obstruction observed during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) via nasal mask (NM) can maintain the airway patent with near 100% success in patients with OSA. Obesity is a major risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea and obese patients have a higher prevalence of UAO during anesthesia. The investigators hypotheses that nCPAP should eliminate airway obstruction in obese patients under anesthesia. The investigators propose to test this hypothesis and determine the efficacy of nCPAP on maintaining airway patency in obese patients who require general anesthesia compared with CPAP administering face mask.
  • Device: nasal mask CPAP
    CPAP and ventilation administered via nasal mask
    • nCPAP
Ages eligible for Study
18 Years to 65 Years
Genders eligible for Study
All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers
No
Inclusion Criteria:
  • Body Mass Index:30 to 50 kg/ m2, Age: 18-65 years old ASA physical status classification: I-III Requiring general anesthesia for elective surgery
Exclusion Criteria:
  • Patients with major cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cerebral vascular disease or American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class IV or greater.
  • Abnormal vital signs on the day of admission for surgery [heart rate (HR, >100 bpm or <40 bpm), blood pressure (BP, >180/100 mmHg or <90/60 mmHg), room air transcutaneous oxyhemoglobin saturation (SPO2) <96%] that are not correctable with his or her routine medication or commonly used pre-operative medication.
  • Having claustrophobia and not able to tolerate the mask.
  • Any person with an anticipated difficult airway or those with a history of difficult airway. This will include subjects who require or may require either a fiberoptic intubation or intubation while awake.
  • Gastric-esophageal reflex disease that is refractory to treatment or a full stomach.
  • The subject has been in bed for more than 24 hours.
  • Neurological symptoms associated with neck extension, a neurological deficit from a previous stroke or spinal cord injury, a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 2 weeks.
  • Pregnant women and women less than one month post-partum. Ruling out pregnancy will be conducted by careful history and physical examination as performed routinely prior to surgery. If the history is believed to be unreliable, the patient will be excluded unless a pregnancy test is performed and the result of the test is negative.
  • Emergency cases and subjects who have not adhered to the ASA NPO (Nil Per Os) guidelines.
Upper airway obstruction (UAO) is an unpredictable and frequently occurring complication during induction of general anesthesia. Since obese patients are more vulnerable to develop airway obstruction either during sleep1 or under anesthesia, and the segment of obese individuals in the entire population keep growing, difficult airway management under anesthesia becomes even more challenging than ever. The most serious event related to difficult airway management under anesthesia is "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate".

The mechanism of UAO during anesthesia has not been well understood. Obese patients are a high-risk group for perioperative airway catastrophe and prone to develop progressively narrower pharyngeal airways due to an increase of soft tissue volume surrounding the pharyngeal airway. The mechanism of UAO during anesthesia shares many similarities with the upper airway obstruction observed during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) via nasal mask (NM) can maintain the airway patent with near 100% success in patients with OSA. Obesity is a major risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea and obese patients have a higher prevalence of UAO during anesthesia. Therefore, the investigators hypotheses that nCPAP should eliminate airway obstruction in obese patients under anesthesia. The investigators propose to test this hypothesis and determine the efficacy of nCPAP on maintaining airway patency in obese patients who require general anesthesia.

1 locations

United States (1)
  • Massachusetts General Hospital
    Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
Status:
completed
Type:
Observational
Phase:
-
Start:
31 March, 2015
Updated:
16 March, 2017
Participants:
32
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